Commentary Supporting teachers of refugees Children account for 41% of the over 89 million people who are forcibly displaced worldwide, and education is key to their life chances. It is therefore critical to consider the question of who teaches refugees, what challenges these teachers may face, and what support is needed to ensure better teaching and learning outcomes in these communities. Refugee teachers are an absolutely vital resource in their communities but have not received sufficient attention in the past. Here, we reflect on our research and expertise working with teachers of refugees to provide insights into the crucial ways in which they can be effectively supported. Commentary The ‘missing middle’: creating an environment for the middle tier to drive change in education In the face of a widespread crisis of teaching and learning, policymakers around the world must consider how best to strengthen their education systems to improve teaching and learning outcomes – and to do so at scale. One key element of the education workforce is too often neglected in this mission: the middle tier. Here, we share insights, based on our research with IIEP-UNESCO, on the creation of an environment which unleashes the potential of a professionalised middle-tier workforce. If properly enabled, the middle tier – rather than being a marginal part of the education system – can be a vital asset – pivotal to policy implementation and transformational change. Commentary Climate change and education: insights from Turkana, Kenya Climate change matters for education – and education matters in the fight against climate change. As this issue rightly continues to generate public and policy attention, it is critical that the connections between climate change and education are not overlooked. The risks posed to learners by the changing climate are very real – especially in low-and-middle-income contexts – but we must also carefully consider how education could mitigate aspects of this huge global challenge. Commentary Careers education and guidance to prepare girls for the future of work The modern labour market can be a challenging, competitive and complex place for young people to navigate. There are approximately 73 million unemployed youth globally (ILO.org). The International Labour Organisation (ILO) estimated the share of youth aged 15-24 not in employment, education or training (NEET) in 2020 to be at 23% globally and at 33% in Southern Africa, 31% in MENA and 11% in European Union member states (ILOSTAT). Successful engagement of young people in the labour market is essential for their own personal livelihoods and wellbeing and for social and economic change. Commentary School leadership for resilient education systems As the Covid-19 pandemic spread across the globe, schools were confronted by a period of exceptional uncertainty. Headteachers, with often minimal experience or training in crisis leadership, needed to react quickly to minimise disruption to learning. Education Development Trust (EDT) has been collaborating with UNESCO-IIEP as a thought leadership partner to consider how education leadership might be strengthened in crisis settings, as part of IIEP’s work on crisis-sensitive planning. Commentary Women in education leadership Evidence increasingly suggests a link between good female school leaders and positive learning outcomes, yet women remain severely underrepresented in school leadership. To date, this has not been an easy challenge for education policymakers to address. EDT’s transformational model of girls’ education recognises the need for a combination of approaches to increase the quality of teaching and learning for all children. This includes directing attention to gender within school leadership.